Холокост. Последние свидетели | Документальный фильм Би-би-си


My name is Eva Szepezi. I am 87. When I was sent to Auschwitz in 1944,
I was twelve. The fascists wanted to shoot us all
so that no one survived to tell the story. My name is Maria Neiman. I was born in 1930. When the war began I was ten years old. On the 23rd of June
I was taken to the ghetto. Mama and the little ones stayed there
and she was executed. My name is Tamar. I’m 81. I was three when the war began. I saw what went on in the ghetto. It was horrible. Of all the people who were there,
my Mama and I were the only survivors. HOLOCAUST THE LAST SURVIVORS FEAR They unloaded us from the wagon and drove us into the barracks. Ours was the first train
which didn’t go directly to the gas chambers. Trains bringing Hungarian Jews
usually went straight there. But not that evening. EVA SZEPEZI, BORN IN HUNGARY
PRISONER IN AUSCHWITZ IN 1944-1945 But that evening there was no selection. That’s how I am alive, sitting here today. MARIA NEIMAN, BORN IN BELARUS
PRISONER IN THE BORISOV GHETTO,1941 We got up early, pulled on whatever clothes
we could and went out to work. We had to remember to wear
our yellow star to show who we are. They beat me. We cleared the snow.
We worked until dark. They only gave us food in the evening –
leftover scraps. TAMAR DREYFUS, BORN IN LITHUANIA
PRISONER OF THE VILNA GHETTO 1941-43 Once in the ghetto the Germans came
and commanded everyone to leave. We were hiding in a bunker
when we heard the order – all men must leave otherwise
hey would blow up the bunker. That was the last time I saw my father. He didn’t survive. Mama picked me up and we were marched
to a train with four wagons. They shoved us in like sardines. While I sat on the floor all that time
I thought about my mama. She used to have some perfume
in a beautiful flask. As a kid I took it out of the cupboard
because I wanted to smell delicious like her. But I dropped the flask and it smashed. The whole house filled
with the smell of perfume. I went over and over the memory in my mind and felt I could smell mama’s perfume
all the way to Auschwitz. What happened next was probably
the worst moment for me. A woman came up to me with scissors
and before I even realised what was happening she cut off my plaits
and then shaved my head. I looked at my lovely plaits
in a pile of other people’s hair. Then they tattooed me. I was given a number. 26 877. I still have this number. I never thought of having it removed. It sort of belongs to me. Yes, here it is. That same evening
another dreadful thing happened. They brought a vat of soup into the barracks. At that point we didn’t have spoons
so we had to sip straight from the vat. I was terribly hungry
and rushed to be the first but the pot was boiling hot
and scalded my lips. I didn’t get any food that night because by the time I got another turn
there was nothing left. After that I never tried to be the first
to get food from the vat again. 70% OF ARRIVALS IN AUSCHWITZ
WERE KILLED WITHIN 24 HOURS ESCAPE And then Mama said,
she will do everything she can to save us. She thought it was better to die
trying to escape than to go meekly to the slaughter. We were shunted around for a very long time. Mama made three attempts to escape. The first time she took me and another child,
but we were caught and Mama was sentenced
to 25 strokes of the whip. On the third stroke she lost consciousness and they threw us back into the wagon. It was horrendous. There was scarcely anything to eat, just a few crumbs which were given
to old people and kids. The stench was awful. I remember the horror of it to this day,
and how afraid I was. The second time we stopped,
Mama tried to escape with me again. Again they caught us
and Mama shouted at the guard, “Well, go on then, shoot!” She thought it would be better to die that way. But they hit her on the head
with the rifle butt. For two days she couldn’t hear anything and just lay there, not able to stand up. At the last stop before the camp
we were sent to the showers. Thank goodness these were
just ordinary showers. Everyone undressed. Then Mama picked out a suit
and a dress for me from a pile of clothes. She even tied a ribbon in my hair and taking me by the hand,
we just walked out. It was our last chance to save ourselves. It was the transit camp at Tauragė. There were soldiers everywhere
but no one stopped us. Mama tore the yellow star that Jews
had to wear off the clothes. Probably the guards thought
she was an officer’s wife visiting her husband. We headed straight towards the gates. There was a sentry standing there
but he heard shots and ran off towards them. Mama hurried me through the gates
and we were outside. That’s how we were the only prisoners
who managed to stay alive. We heard that Germans were already close. I managed to escape alive with my sister. Mama said to Papa, just take the older ones
otherwise we’ll all perish. She opened the cellar door
and we climbed down to hide with Papa. But Mama stayed above with two little ones
and they were taken off and shot. There were such horrible sounds –
weeping, howling and screams. The whole earth was groaning. We went into hiding. We moved from one village to another,
terrified we would be caught. In the last house there was
a ferocious looking dog. A guard dog, which was trained to attack anyone or anything that threatened the household. Mama loved animals and dogs too
and she decided to befriend the dog. She took him food three times a day
and we made friends. He had a big kennel and he let us go inside. One day some Lithuanian partisans
came to the village. They were fighting against Hitler
but they didn’t like Jews. Mama overheard them saying
they guessed we were Jewish and they wanted to hurt us
so we hid in the kennel of Tigris. That is the dog’s name. And we didn’t come out for two days. Each time they gave him food
he didn’t touch it and left it for us. He let us take it from his bowl.
He was an amazing dog. Mama said that humans
were worse than wild animals. Animals eat their prey,
and when they are satisfied they calm down but not humans. Humans don’t stop,
they are always greedy for more. That’s what the Germans were like –
they went on and on killing. Even now when I talk about it I feel a shudder. We walked and walked and begged for charity. Once we met the polizei
who was in charge of the district. He looked at us and said: “You’re going to die of hunger,
we better get you into an orphanage”. He drove us in his car to a children’s home. We had just one pair of shoes
on the bare wooden floor. We caught typhus
and everything else going around. Some of the boys there even died. But we were lucky. A high explosive bomb
landed under our window. It caught fire and we rushed outside to escape. We stayed in the orphanage
until the liberation of Borisov. MARIA’S FATHER DIED FIGHTING IN 1944 Towards the end I got very, very ill
and had no strength at all. All around me were the dead and dying. Every day, morning and evening
hey counted us for hours. We stood out in the frost and snow. We didn’t have socks, not to mention gloves. We were freezing. We didn’t have warm clothes, just those stripped hand-me-downs
and wooden clogs on our bare feet. The Red Army was already close. The Germans were supposed to retreat quickly and take everyone who could walk with them. In fact they had orders
to kill everyone left behind so no one could bear witness
to the horrors they had perpetrated. By that time I looked like a corpse
and they decided I wasn’t going to live. I was losing consciousness
and everything was a blur. But when I came round
I saw a Russian soldier in a beautiful fur hat. There was a red star on his hat
and the soldier was smiling at me. The warmth shining from his kind face
made me so happy. Polish doctors looked after us
and gave us small amounts of food, to begin with. When I began to feel a little better
I started to go outside. I looked at the snow
and took delight in it for the first time. A couple of weeks before snow only meant death. ONLY 14% OF EUROPEAN JEWS SURVIVED THE HOLOCAUST REVIVAL The thought that I must get back home,
I must find my family, helped me to survive. It gave me strength. I tried to eat and not think about the taste. Whatever they gave me, I gulped it down. I absolutely had to survive. I wanted to see my mother
and brother again so badly. Unfortunately it wasn’t meant to be,
but it gave me hope. I returned to Budapest on September 18,1945
and started back at school. In 1948 I met my future husband. We started going out together
and in 1951 we married. More than anything else in the world
I wanted to have a baby. I had lost my parents
and I wanted to have someone of my own. That’s how Judith [my daughter] appeared. It took me a long time
to learn to even look at people. I was so afraid. I was silent. During the war Mama always asked me
to be quiet so I didn’t give us away. I couldn’t understand at first
that we were free now. It was a long slow process. I met my husband in 1957 [in Israel]. He wanted to study in Germany
because he was born there. His parents fled to Palestine before the war
so he hadn’t lived through the Holocaust. He spoke German and wanted to study photography. So I followed him. We got married and moved together to Germany although I never wanted to live there. I always wanted to go back. When I arrived there were Nazis everywhere. I found it very hard to see them all the time, to meet them everywhere
and to know they were going unpunished. Not all of them were put on trial. Many didn’t even repent what they had done. It was incredibly difficult for me to accept. When we were in Germany my husband
helped to catch Nazis. One of the Gestapo commanders
lived openly in Germany, not hiding his identity
and no one accused him of anything. My husband began to photograph him. Then people came over from Paris,
from France – they were Nazi hunters. Eventually the Gestapo officer
was taken to court and sentenced. I really admire people who survived Auschwitz. How they managed to recover and return to life. They suffered so much. It’s astonishing after what they went through
to have a normal life. It’s not at all easy. I could only carry on after the war
by suppressing all these memories. I tried not to think about what happened there,
tried to build a new life. But to this day I miss my mother’s love. I didn’t get nearly enough of it. All I managed to get back after the war
was a couple of photos of my relatives. Nothing else remained. I put these photos on my dressing table. And now they are always there. Every time I come home to my flat
I greet my Mama and little brother and he smiles at me from the photo. ALMOST 6 MILLION JEWS
PERISHED IN THE HOLOCAUST TODAY Papa told me to believe in God
and believe in people. The things I suffered have never left me. They’ve stayed here in my heart. They’ll never go away. But you have to get on with life
and thank God for every day you live. That’s all. I didn’t have a childhood. It was stolen from me. I was forced to grow up in a moment. And that gave me strength –
I have a kind of energy. It makes me think we can survive anything. I survived in spite of the hunger and everything. And it all made me stronger. Today when life gets difficult, I try to find that strength inside me
which sustained me back then. Lots of people who gave up then didn’t survive. When you give in and say you can’t go on anymore,
usually you don’t come through. You have to tell yourself
that you will overcome. And it helps. Each time I give my public talks I am paying a debt of respect
and admiration for my Mama. She was an incredibly strong woman.
You don’t meet her kind often. When I hear it said that Auschwitz is a myth I think how important it is for all us survivors to tell the next generation
what it was really like. So that it can never happen again. My little brother and my Mama cannot speak. All those killed by the Nazi’s have been deprived of their voices
so we must tell the story for them. I always say to school children, you’re not guilty
for what happened in the past but you are responsible
for what might happen in the future. For example if you don’t do anything
when you someone is picked on for no reason. ONCE A WEEK A GROUP OF HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS
MEET IN COLOGNE I’ve been going to
the Erzaehl café for many years. It’s almost all Russian speakers. We get together. I always sit at the same table with my friends. It cheers you up. Without it life would be boring. I don’t speak Russian. But it’s still interesting to meet people
and listen to their stories. Yesterday I found the talk
about Leningrad very interesting. There was a lot I never knew about before. Sometimes we just talk about things we’ve read. I for one love books. If someone wants to stand up and talk, they can. But it makes my heart ache. I bring my antianxiety pills with me. Sometimes I feel upset. We carry a lot around in our souls. What can you do? We all suffered. Once again, people are prejudiced
against strangers and this attitude needs to change. We must accept people
regardless of the colour of their skin, their religion or the language they speak. But to make it happen,
we have a long fight ahead. A THIRD OF EUROPEANS KNOW
ALMOST NOTHING ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST**From a poll by ComRes from 2018in Austria, Germany, France, Britain,
Hungary Poland and Sweden

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Comments

  1. Дай Бог Вам всем здоровья…..Участь,хуже вашей,даже страшно представить

  2. Ужасная трагедия…… когда нибудь мир признает что это было спланировано верхушкой

  3. Простите, а кто будет платить советским старикам за гулаг? Бабушка рассказывала как 17ти летняя девочка в -30 беременна, и рубила лес с дружбой два. Люди умирали от холода и голода на улице, и похоронить их никто не мог! земля была мерзлой, ее брат просто гнил под снегом (Царство ему небесное) И почему об Этом нету передач? Евреям и их Семьям, Десятки лет плотили деньги,а советским людям пережившие Ад, ни копейки не дали…

  4. Уссатый и художник это уже сделали. Плешивый следующий

  5. Смотришь сейчас на немцев и не верится что они способны на такое

  6. Слышать реальные истории от людей переживших такое — бесценно. Мы должны помнить про эти страницы истории всегда и не давать людям переписывать историю прикрываясь благим смыслом.

  7. столько перенести …такие тяготы такой ужас . так пострадать от христиан и выплеснуть все на мусульман. за что на палестину то обрушился ваш гнев

  8. Этот человеческий ужас не должен быть забыт никогда. Об этом надо напоминать всегда, как делают прививки. Может тогда у людей появится иммунитет против зверств. И мы перестанем творить зло

  9. Спасибо за документальный фильм. Нельзя забывать, о тех кошмарах, что там происходили. Сложно представить что бы в этом аду кто-то смог выжить, но кто-то выживал. Нельзя это забывать, ибо если забудем, то это может повторится вновь.

  10. Смотрела и плакала!Сколько же пережили эти люди,просто невозможно!Как можно выжить в таких условиях,страх,голод,холод,какая же участь досталась этим людям?!!!Нельзя допускать такого ужаса!!!

  11. Не возможно смотреть и не возможно не смотреть, а когда появляются свои дети, ужас от просмотренного становится животным

  12. Как просто людей поломать и в загон загнать а. Щас помрут и третью начнем ага. Спасибо за сюжет

  13. Спасибо за фильм. Дайте посмотреть своим детям. Такое не должно повторяться… 😢

  14. Спасибо за видио! 👍🏼 Восхищаюсь этими замечательными женщинами. Крепкого здоровья и долголетия.

  15. Они не хотят передачу сделать как ядерную бомбу США на жилой город скинули? Как люди заживо сгорели . . . Они видят только чужие преступления

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