Planet 9 Could Be a Black Hole?! | SciShow News


[♩INTRO] In 2016, two Caltech astronomers proposed that our solar system is home to nine planets. And no, they didn’t reclassify Pluto. Instead, they found evidence for a hypothetical
Neptune-sized planet at least forty billion kilometers from the
Sun far enough that it would take fifteen thousand
years for it to complete one orbit. In the last three years, this Planet 9 hypothesis
has continued to gain support. But last week, two other scientists proposed that this object could be something a little
more exotic. Instead of a planet out there, they say it
could be a black hole, but like…a tiny black hole. Like, the size of your fist. Like…a chihuahua’s head! This paper hasn’t gone through peer-review
yet, but it’s making some big claims. And one way or another, it could teach us
more about what’s lurking in our solar system. This whole Planet 9 thing came about after
researchers noticed something strange about the outskirts of the solar system. There’s a lot of small rocky and icy bodies
out there, and many of them have weird orbits. Ones so weird that they seem to be affected
by the gravitational pull of some larger, unknown body – something between 5-15 times
the mass of Earth. If there’s something out there, it’s probably
a planet, but technically, any object with the right
amount of mass would do. Including a special kind of black hole. Normally, black holes form from massive stars, so they’re millions of times heavier than
the Earth. But there’s a hypothetical kind of black
hole that could be much lighter like, five to fifteen times the mass of our
planet. They’re called primordial black holes, and they may have been created shortly after
the universe began. At that time, everything in existence was
packed close together. And as the idea goes, primordial black holes
formed when extra dense pockets of matter collapsed
in on themselves. According to this new hypothesis, an object
like this could have been captured by the Sun’s gravity, and it would easily
explain all the weird orbits we’ve seen past Neptune. Now, since black holes are so dense, this
thing would be small only about nine centimeters across. But it might still be easier to spot than
a distant planet. At least, if you don’t rely on visible light. Scientists believe that primordial black holes
would be surrounded by halos of dark matter. This is a type of matter we can’t directly
detect, but that most evidence suggests is out there. The authors of this paper argue that, occasionally,
dark matter around the black hole could interact with similar particles and
turn into gamma radiation. Lucky for us, we have telescopes that can
pick that up. So theoretically, if we started seeing gamma
ray flashes out past Neptune, it could be a sign that we have a local black
hole. This hypothesis is definitely in need of more
evidence, but even if it doesn’t pan out, searching for a primordial black hole wouldn’t
be useless. It would likely allow us to learn more about
dark matter, primordial black holes, and the flashes of gamma rays we’ve already
detected. So one way or another, it seems like a possibility
worth investigating. In other black hole news, because it’s that
kind of week, a handful of telescopes has detected something
super hardcore: A black hole three hundred seventy-five million
light-years away, ripping apart a star with the power of gravity. The results were published last week in The
Astrophysical Journal. The discovery itself happened in January, and the first instrument to notice something
going on was NASA’s TESS. TESS has been orbiting Earth for a little
over a year now, and it stares at one large section of sky
for several weeks at a time. Its main goal is to find planets beyond the
solar system, but because it’s just floating around out there with its proverbial eyes
open, it’s bound to observe other phenomena, too.
And that’s what happened last winter. In January, the telescope picked up an increase
in brightness coming from a distant star. Then, several days later, less-sensitive instruments
on the ground noticed the same thing. The event came to be called ASASSN-19bt after the first project to give us data about
it. Because even though TESS technically saw it
first, it only sends data to Earth every two weeks,
so the other team got the naming rights. This brightening turned out to be the early
stages of a tidal disruption event, or TDE. Which is a scientific way of saying a star
is getting absolutely wrecked by a black hole. The murderous culprit sits at the center of
a galaxy called… okay, don’t make me say that. I don’t know how to say that. Look, you’re never going to visit this thing. The bigger point is that this black hole seems
to be about six million times more massive than
the Sun. That’s fifty percent more massive than the supermassive black hole at the center
of the Milky Way. The more mass an object has, the more of a gravitational pull it has on
the stuff around it. So when a star wandered too close to this
black hole, things got messy. The difference in gravity between one side
of the star and the other became so great that it overcame the forces holding the star
together. In other words, the black hole ripped the
star apart. Some of the star’s gas and plasma likely
escaped into the void of space, but the rest tumbled down toward the black
hole, creating a swirling disk and a large flare
of radiation we could see from Earth. Tidal disruption events are super rare, and
scientists have only captured about forty of them so far. That means each new observation can teach
us something. In this case, observing the event early-on
allowed researchers to chart the extreme drop in the star’s
temperature that happened within the first few days. It went from forty thousand degrees Celsius
to only twenty thousand. Something like this was in our prediction
models, but now we have actual evidence. Scientists will continue to study this event,
both with TESS and with other instruments. And ultimately, their data will help them
develop better models for how TDEs happen. From tiny, hypothetical objects to monsters
that rip apart stars, there’s a lot in the news about black holes
this week. But if these papers show us anything, it’s
that there’s always more to learn. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
Space News! Before you go, I have an update for you! Every month, we release a new, space-themed
pin, and October’s pin is officially available! It’s of Sputnik, humanity’s first artificial
satellite, and it’s very, very good and shiny and fun. And you can only get it during the month of
October, so if you’re interested, check out the link in the description or the
merch shelf below the video. [♩OUTRO]

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Comments

  1. Lots of people getting hung up about the paper not yet being peer reviewed when the reality is there isn’t a peer on the planet who is qualified to tell them it isn’t a possibility. Primordial black holes are just a theory.

    If they exist, it’s been postulated that they could be all over the place although evidence over the last 3 years makes it seem more plausible that there aren’t that many left and the ones that were big enough to not have evaporated (if Hawking radiation is real) have become seeds for galaxies.

    The cool thing is we can prove they are real if LIGO or Virgo ever catch two black holes merging that have less mass than it takes to form a black hole. (Which isn’t a true proof since we can’t be certain that it takes the collapse of a star 1.4 solar masses or more to form a black hole, but the math has held for a long time.).

    One of the early theories of primordial black holes is that they account for dark matter but observations have basically debunked that.

    I have a hypothesis though: I wonder if it’s possible that primordial black holes are responsible for dark matter but not in the way we think. They don’t contribute to mass – they mask it.

    What if they have bent light so much that we only see the light from certain points in time and aren’t seeing the whole picture? So like we see some light from 1 billion years ago but a bunch of photons that were also released at the same time won’t reach us for another billion years.

    In essence we see the effects of gravity from this objects that don’t appear to be visible, but only because the light from those objects has been dramatically bent/absorbed by primordial black holes?

  2. That's a dumb theory it would have swallowed asteroid fields, planets, the sun, everytime it orbited close to the sun. Also wouldn't the sun be trapped in its orbit not the other way around?

  3. Wouldn't tiny black holes like that have a very limited lifetime, since smaller black holes suffer from increased evaporation by emitting more Hawking radiation, which would make this hypothesis more unlikely?

  4. It's obviously a stabilized wormhole created by the reptillians and that's how they've been here the last few thousand years to slowly infiltrate our society with the end goal of putting Obama into office

  5. Now, here's a thought that just hit me…. Could black holes actually BE "pools" of black matter? I know, I know… The whole collapsed star thing. But, hear me out… The star collapses, forming the initial black hole. The black hole gathers not only light but black matter which, for some reason we don't yet understand, simply pools around the spinning black hole rather than being sucked into it. Maybe because of the odd nature of the black matter itself, it is as dense as it can get and, therefore, cannot be further condensed by the black hole? This "pool" would be, in essence, a black solar system, rotating around the black hole as it's "sun" so to speak. And the black matter could potentially be viewed as the black hole's planets… The odd things the brain will come up with at 4:30 in the morning!

  6. 1:earth is going to be unlivable soon

    2:unknown object enters our solar system

    Me: oh yeah , it’s all coming together

  7. 2MASX J07001137-6602251: X source found with 2MASS with equatorial coordinate in epoch 2000J 07h 00m 11.37s -66° 02' 25''.1

  8. At first I thought, Yay! There’s our way to reach other solar systems like Interstellar. But, then the moment when narrator said it’s 9cm wide, I was like Hell no! No one’s going in it. Even my cuckoo can’t even fit in there.

  9. Would it not that if that so called black hole comes closer to the sun, change the path's of the other planet's or do we neglect the law's of gravity now because that is what they good at in this kind of "Science"?

  10. We should just use a quantum computer to simulate every possible orbit of a 9th planet and then match the results to the orbits shown, and then take the matches and look very closely to where this thing should be. Very very closely. If the sims are right, it'll be there.

  11. Now I feel uncomfortable, a couple of days ago they discover a star the size of the sun getting ripped apart by a black hole and now there could be a black hole lurking somewhere beyond Neptune?
    Pfff, where's Elon's Starship? time to go somewhere else away from all these stupid space death machines(i would probably be zapped by a gamma-ray burst trying to get away)

  12. So ya saying the planet could be a theory. Get off the black hole waggon ffs they dont exist. Stop wasting the worlds time.

  13. If you put your penus inside a tiny black hole, but only pull out at the right moment during the spaghettification process, can you get a bigger pp for girls to like?

  14. if they are able to gain more evidence supporting the existence of this primordial black hole it could open new doors to time travel and research of singularity

  15. This is embarrassing! Perfect example of how people will compromise their integrity in order to get clicks. The two most important things in the universe is matter and energy and Mankind doesn't understand either one of them at all! Just enjoy it instead of trying to prove there's no God and that the universe is limited and finite.

  16. Or, as Veritasium pointed out, the skewed orbits pointing to Planet 9 could just be because we've only looked in that part of the sky to see them. Have they found anything looking the other way since Derek's video?

  17. it just impossible, because according to Einstein theory of relativity, the smallest black hole at least have 5 solar masses, imagine an object with mass 5 times of our Sun in the edge of our Solar System, it will tear apart every planet orbit and Earth will become a rogue planet without parent star.

  18. First 3 minutes is about some half ass joke and the rest is about reading some another random stuff somewhat relative to the subject, 5/5 dude got nice voice and remember 912 was an inside job

  19. Any size of black hole could Exist. You could have a size of bark whole damped is Jupiter size and Jupiter is the biggest planet in our Solar System. Or you can have a black hole that is bigger than all of the planets combined. So that would be a serious black hole.

  20. I like to think that primordial black holes drag worm tunnels behind them that connect to all the others around the universe by routes as short as they were at the start of the universe. That is to say, very short tunnels. I imagine that aliens herded that tunnel entrance here to get access to the earth when they first started gardening here a few billion years ago.

  21. If it is; it should be easy to detect by looking for gamma-ray flashes from Hawking radiation. Fermi should be able to check that really quickly in fact. I don't think it is tho.

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