The Hindu News Analysis | 28th November 2019 | Current Affairs – UPSC Mains – Prelims 2020

Good evening, aspirants! Welcome, to ‘The Hindu’ news analysis by Shankar IAS Academy These are the list of articles chosen
for today’s analysis. It has been given along with the page numbers of Chennai
Bengaluru Delhi Trivandrum and Hyderabad editions. The link for the handwritten
notes in the PDF format and the time stamping for the displayed articles is
given in the description box below and for the benefit of smartphone users the
time stamping is also provided in the comment section. Let’s move on to a first
news article analysis. This discussion is based on this editorial they return
article talks about various ways that are required to address the air
pollution in Delhi the article mentions that stubble burning in Punjab is just
one of the important culprits among other culprits in degrading the air
quality in Delhi that is why the article is titled as stubble burning is not the
only culprit the author of this editorial article is a former secretary
of department of food and public distribution and he is also a former
secretary of Department of Agriculture as well in this discussion we will be
discussing about stubble burning along with the other factors leading to air
pollution now in this double burning refers to burning of crop leftovers or a
crop residue particularly the crop residue of paddy crop we know that after
the harvesting both the rice stalk and rice straw become crop residue farmers
clear the leftovers by burning because they find burning as the cheapest way to
prepare the land for subsequent Rabi cropping so this is the small
introduction about stubble burning no because of the influence of wind systems
the smoke that is emanating because of stubble burning along with many other
factors worsens the air quality in Delhi the syllabus that is relevant for the
analysis of this news article is given here for your reference now the author
mentions that whenever air pollution is discussed with respect to Delhi the
media pays attention only to the paddies double burning that happens in punjab
and haryana in the month of October to November so as a solution to this only
one solution is offered which is the carrot and stick approach that is to be
used for the farmers in punjab here the author refers to providing
subsidised happy cedars as carrot and he refers to prosecuting and
punishing those who carry out stubble burning as stick approach now here
authors point is that this carrot and stick approach per se that is this
characteristic approach in itself or on its own cannot save Delhi from air
pollution there are various other contributing factors for the worsening
air pollution in Delhi one of the factor is that the October to November season
in Delhi is stifled by some natural conditions we have discussed these
conditions several times one of the condition is the temperature inversion
in winter normally with the increase in altitude the atmospheric temperature
falls but in temperature inversion what happens is a layer of warmer air lies
over the layer of cool air at the surface this layer of warmer air acts as
a lid thereby it traps the aerosols and as a result of this there is more air
pollution in the area then the next factor is also an natural factor which
is aggravating the air pollution in the region it is the low wind speed or
sometimes no wind speed at all in the region as a result of this there is no
dispersal of polluted air now because of this Delhi is the most affected region
in North India by air pollution no sense these are the natural factors that are
contributing to air pollution the author mentions that these factors are governed
by the laws of science so now let us see what are the other culprits or what are
the other major or important contributing factors for air pollution
in Delhi which are not widely discussed to address the pollution situation in
Turkey these factors are man-made factors or anthropogenic activities that
play a major role in determining the air quality in Delhi these factors also play
a major role leading to air pollution in addition to double burning one of the
factor is burning of biomass in urban Delhi then also use of coal-fired ovens
that is a use of thunders then another factor is the pollution from coal based
industries and the coal based power plants which are located in the
outskirts of Delhi and then another reason is the exponential increase in
these sport utility vehicles or SUVs in the National Capital Region
here the problem with sports utility vehicle is that they use more energy
than normal cars and they release more pollutants than normal
medium-sized cars recently in October if you see the International Energy Agency
has stated that SUVs were the second largest contributor to the increase in
global carbon dioxide emissions since the year 2010 the first major
contributor is the power sector so usage of SUVs in Delhi region is one of the
contributing factors for pollution in the fragile winter season so these are
some of the factors in Delhi that are altering the air quality of the capital
then after this author talks about a law in Punjab which is a contributing factor
for this double burning to be a cause of air pollution in Delhi this law was
enacted to erase the fall of groundwater level and to improve the groundwater
table in front of this law is called as the punjab preservation of subsoil Water
Act of 2009 this law actually imposed a delay on farmers to plant paddy as per
Section three of this Act farmers should not so bad in ursery before enter a
every year and they cannot transplant paddy before the notified date under the
law this day it is notified every year the idea was to discourage farmers from
sowing paddy and thereby it aimed to improve the water table in addition to
this by enacting this law the state government also wanted to divert the
farmers from paddy to cash crops such as cotton maze and basmati rice this is
because these cotton maze in basmati rice require less water and they are
also environment friendly if we compare with normal paddy varieties but whether
this law achieved its objectives is a totally different question this is
because paddy was found more rewarding to farmers than other crops or other
cash crops so the farmers stuck with paddy cultivation only and they delayed
the cultivation by a period of some two weeks from the usual soil which is
demanded by the law from time to time now the delay in paddy cultivation
naturally led to delay in her as a result of this harvesting was
possible only by the last week of October or in the early November this is
exactly the time in which the natural factors such as less wind speed and
temperature inversion add severely to pollution along with anthropogenic
factors that we discussed then after this author also talks about the
possible way forward in tackling air pollution in Delhi one is to reduce
paddy area or to reduce paddy production at least in water stressed blocks of
Punjab here the author gives a solution for tackling air pollution in Delhi and
also tackling a falling groundwater level in water stressed regions of
Punjab so when we reduce paddy production what could be the consequence
the consequence could be the public distribution system may not get the
required rise if production is reduced then what amount of rice will the
government give to the affected beneficiaries of PDS system as a
solution to this the author suggests cash transfer to the accounts of PDS the
beneficiaries if the government could not provide rice so from where the state
can take money for implementing this cash transfer for this also author
suggests an idea that is every year around 6000 crores are spent by the
government in terms of power subsidy to the farm sector in the state of Punjab a
significant number of users of this power subsidy are paddy farmers only
so if production is reduced then there is less need or no need of this subsidy
so the subsidy amount in total could be diverted for cash transfers so this was
the suggestion provided by the author now when production area or production
of paddy crop is reduced this means two things that is farmers going for other
cash crops or suitable crops that can adapt in water stress areas some of the
farmers may usually cultivate paddy for relatively better and remunerative
prices such farmers will face loss of revenue when they go for other crops
with respect to difference in net farm returns and market risks compared to the
paddy producers so for this the author calls for the concept of moving from
cultivating single crops to multiple or other crops as diversification so here
the government has to step in to take appropriate measures and to provide some
compensation the compensation most expectedly shall be equal to the losses
suffered by the farmers while farmers go for diversification then the next way is
to allow farmers to plant paddy before they mentioned it in the punjab
preservation of subsoil Water Act of 2009 or allowing farmers to transplant
paddy before June this will help in naturally proponent the harvesting
season this is important because if this happens there will not be a stress on
pollution levels in Delhi in the high stress period for pollution that is in
the last week of October and the first two weeks of November this addition will
minimize the contribution to pollution even though farmers may go for sporadic
or limited incidents of stubble burning then the order also suggests to
distribute happy Cedars to the farmers so that this can be used to be farmers
to sow Rabi crops without attempting stubble burning see here happy cedar is
a machine these happy cedar machines cut and lift the rice drop then it’s so
sweet into the bare soil after sowing it deposits the straw over the zone area as
mulch or as a soil cover so farmers need not go for stubble burning to get rid of
the crop residue but these machines have some limitations also one is that the
cedar has to operate within about 45 days of harvest for better results then
the effectiveness of this cedar machine totally depends on the moisture that is
present in the soil at the time of seeding Rabi crops so the soil has to be
not too moist at the same time not too dry also this requires a good
understanding of soil conditions so for efficient use of these machines
agronomic practices are needed to be changed particularly with respect to
application of fertilizer and education for this the farmers have to be educated
and they should be given awareness regarding the same then another factor
with this cedar machines is that it may be used only during the 15-day window
for harvesting paddy crops that is it will be used just for 15 days in a year
so can farmers who could be small farmer margin
former or tenant farmer or sharecropper will they be able to offer such a
machine though it is one of the solutions is a big question which we
cannot answer so we can say that the problem is complex at the same time it
needs a solution but the solution should take into consideration certain
parameters one is the economic condition of farmers then what are the scientific
options that are available then the solutions will require the willingness
of the central government to change policy then the solution also requires
the government to fund a major part of the expenditure and the solution for
improving air quality in Delhi requires coordinated action to address all the
contributing factors in addition to double Dhoni
so if all these are carried out then we will be able to mitigate the ad
pollution in the capital with this we come to the end of this news article
discussion there is plate practice question will be discussed in the last
session this discussion is based on fall army bomb the syllabus that can be
linked to this discussion is given here for your reference the news article
states that around 1.2 lakh hectares of land in the state of Tamil Nadu have
been covered against the Menace or fall or me bomb that is it has been protected
against this infestation this year this protection has been carried out because
last year around 2.2 lakh hectares were affected by this fall army worm
infestation and this accounted for about 60% of maize cultivation in this date so
this state almost lost 60% of its maize cultivation – this infestation hence as
a precaution various steps have been taken by the Agriculture Department of
this state to keep this infestation under control this year the steps taken
by the Agriculture Department includes spraying two rounds of plant protection
chemicals and biopesticides then also an integrated pest management strategy have
been formulated by the government in addition to these the affected farmers
were also given compensation by the government for the damages last year now
not only the state of Tamil Nadu was affected by this form but also other
southern states like Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh had endued the fall
of a1 – in a big way last year and also in the month of May this year this
infestation resulted in crop loss of rupees 20 crore in the state of Missouri
mode so so we can see that how much this infestation has affected our country
from the southern states to the northeastern state so hence it becomes
important for us to discuss about this fall army bomb in the examination point
of view now scientifically it is known as butt up there are few get paired up
this fall army worm or FA W is an insect and this insect is native to tropical
and subtropical regions of America now the problem that this insect is its
larval stage because it causes more damage as it feeds on more than a pea
plant species and these species include maize rice sorghum millet sugarcane
vegetable crops and even cotton so if these many species of crops are affected
then obviously it results in yield losses if it is not well managed and
just now we discussed about this as it caused about rupees 20 crore or crop
loss in the state of Missouri so this F aw was first detected in Central and
West Africa in the early 2016 so even though it’s a native is America it was
detected even in Africa now it has spread to Asia now this is due to its
dangerous trans boundary nature and due to this nature it has high potential to
spread continuously and this spread happens due to its natural distribution
capacity and it also spreads due to its flying ability and even sometimes due to
international trade because by which the pest is also unintentionally passed on
through the produce to other countries if you see this map it illustrates the
spread of this pest till date so as so for 2019 this pest is present in all
countries of sub-saharan Africa except Lesotho and at the end of July 2018 if
a.w was even detected in Yemen and in India so it occurred in Asia in July
2018 only even though it occurred in Juli 2018 as of January 2009
that is within the six to seven months gap it was also reported in countries
like Bangladesh Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand and China so now you may be
thinking if this pest is spreading so fast Lee why no country has taken any
initiative to control this it is because this FA W has several characteristics
that make eradication of the species extremely difficult firstly this FA W is
very mobile and it is said that the adult moths can travel at hundred
kilometer in the night and even individuals can fly over thousand
kilometer in their lifetime so that is how it actually spreads to various
regions and the second reason is this fa w is very poly fibers that is it feeds
on many different species of plants as we discussed earlier and it can
reproduce on different species of plants also so not only it feeds on different
species it can reproduce on many different species so this means that it
can rapidly spread across many environments and cropping systems and it
is not even restricted by the diet also because for example if this best can
only feed on one type of plant then other types of plant will not be
affected but now this species feeds on some 80 plant species so it has no
restriction on its diet and finally if you see the damage caused by FA W is
sometimes confused with farmers with damage from other pests so this is also
a reason that many countries are unable to take eradication measures so if
eradication measures are not taken initially then the reports of a presence
of this FA W may be slow which in turn allows the species to spread before any
action is taken against it so in reality what happens is effectively rapidly
moves across millions of hectares of maize and other plants and it quickly
becomes a problem for farmers so farmers need significant support and this
support should make them able to manage FA W sustainably in their cropping
systems and this can be done through integrated pest management activities
this integrated pest management or in short IPM is an integrated strategy of a
pest control which aims at prevention of pests and its damage through a calm
Nishan of techniques such as through chemical technique biological techniques
and new cropping systems then modification of cultural practices use
of resistant varieties and also through some mechanical methods also
so this integrated pest management emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop
with the least possible disruption to the agro ecosystems and it also
encourages natural pest control mechanisms so let us see some of the
measures based on this IPM first measure which is taken under this IPM is a
sowing of treated maize seeds and next intercropping them with red gram this is
a method provided by Food and Agriculture Organization that is FAO the
next measure is use of pheromone traps it is because early detection of FA W
can be efficiently done using this pheromone traps so what is a pheromone
pheromones are chemicals which are used by insects and other animals to
communicate with each other and through these pheromones insects send chemical
signals to help attract mates and even through this it wants other predators
and it also uses pheromones to find food also
so this pheromone trap will help to lure insects and pests and these traps are
used for monitoring purposes and not for controlling the pests
then another measure is taken by FAO to understand the ecology of fall army bomb
and also to take swift action and disperse early warnings for this purpose
FAO has developed the de fall army bomb monitoring an early warning system or in
short F a.m. EWS this system is to help farmers then communities local
authorities as well as national and international leaders to make the best
use of resources to manage fa w this warning system is a mobile app and it
should be used every time whenever an infested field or a pheromone trap is
check the for FA W so by this app it is very easy to know whether there is a
presence of FA w or not this warning system uses artificial intelligence and
it integrates data from many sources including satellites and this data helps
the authorities to provide farmers with offline advice and recommendations so
that they can control this pest the next measure is using of natural enemies
of fa w this fa w has many natural enemies that is those organisms that are
naturally in the environment and kill fa w eggs larvae and pupae these organisms
include predators such as ants yobics Birds etc then also some parasitoids
which are tiny wasps are also predator to fa w and even some pathogens like
bacteria virus fungi and nematodes are also predators to this species so by
making the presence of these species in the agricultural land this fa w
infestation can be prevented and also using of natural enemies is advisable
because the cumulative effect of these natural agents on fa w can be very high
so farmers can take actions to conserve and attract these organisms to their
fields so that they can increase the mortality of fa w then final measure
which is suggested by Food and Agriculture Organization is the use of
sand and lime mixture in the worlds of maize plants it is said that this
mixture acts like a pesticide and it prevents the spread of this fa w so that
is all about this fa w we discussed about how will this
effectively has caused damage and which plants are affected and how many
countries are affected and what can be done to control this pest but this we
come to the end of this news article discussion that is played practice
question will be discussed in the last session moving on to the next news
article discussion this news article talks about the well-established fact
that global warming alters rainfall pattern the article also mentions lesser
understood climatic phenomenon called as mad and Julian oscillation or mjo in
this context we will see about mjo in detail and its impact on regular or
normal rainfall patterns including Indian monsoon the syllabus that can be
linked to this discussion is given here for your reference
for better understanding of this topic you should know some terms like global
warming greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect and also consequences of global
warming such as the climate change it will help you to understand all climate
related news article we have discussed all these terms in our 27th and number
2019 yes we do so we advise you to what’s it
once in simple terms if we say global warming indicates the rising or
increasing the average temperature of the globe over a period of time the
warming of the globe is because of the increasing amount of greenhouse gases in
the atmosphere these gases like carbon dioxide methane
nitrous oxide etc can absorb the Earth’s re-emitted infrared radiation and in
return these greenhouse gases emit the radiation in all directions as a result
of this if the amount of these greenhouse gases increases then in turn
it increases the temperature of the globe therefore over a period of time
increasing amount of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would have more
impact on normal elements of the climate here elements of the climate are
temperature pressure humidity wind pattern rainfall etc now if there is a
significant deviation or change in these elements then it is known as climate
change the consequences of the climate change mainly include change in rainfall
pattern then unpredictability of the weather then irregular monsoons then
intensive tropical cyclones raising incidents of floods and severe draughts
etc etc now in today’s news article it is mentioned that global warming has
altered key weather systems for example there is more number of cyclones in the
Bay of Bengal and that is decreasing winter rain in North India and also it
is altering global rainfall patterns one of the reason that is mentioned in this
news article is the irregular mad and Julian oscillation so what does this
Madan Julian oscillation or mjo this phenomenon was discovered in 1971 by dr.
Roland Madden and dr. paul Julian of the American National Center for Atmospheric
Research that is why this phenomenas named as mad and Julian oscillation it
is a moving oceanic atmospheric phenomenon which encircles the globe it
is a moving the eastward pulse of clouds rainfall winds and pressure near the
equator it moves at a speed of about 14 to 28 kilometer per hour
and it typically records every 30 to 60 days but if it is disrupted then the
cycle period is about 90 days now the effect of MgO is witnessed mainly in the
tropical region that is in the band between a 30 degrees north and 30
degrees south of the equator though mjo encircles the globe from west to east in
the tropical zone near the equator but it is strongly related to Indian Ocean
and Pacific Ocean the strong moving mjo activity often splits the planet into
two phases one is the active phase which is enhanced Kunshan and then comes the
suppressed phase in the active phase which is characterized by relatively
warmer area there is a rising of the air column which is known as convection so
when there is enhanced convention it results in more than average rainfall
for that time of the year whereas in the suppressed phase the area receives less
than average rainfall now do have a better understanding you can look at
this cycle that is given in this picture in this stage one what happens is that
there is enhanced convection which results in rainfall develops over the
western Indian Ocean then stage two and three this enhanced convection moves
slowly eastwards over the Indian Ocean and parts of the Indian subcontinent
then after this in stage four and five the enhanced convection has reached the
maritime continent which is in donation West Pacific region then in stage six
seven and eight the enhanced convection moves further
eastward over the western Pacific eventually dying out in the Central
Pacific after this the next mjo cycle begins therefore the local weather
conditions are modified based on the stage of the life cycle of the MGO so to
summarize this mjo we can say that an active phase is generally followed by a
weak or suppressed phase in which there is little mjo activity and you should
note that three active MgO periods are witnessed
every year on an average then as we have already discussed that the effect of mjo
is witnessed mainly in the tropical region that is in the band between 30
degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator
the mid-latitude regions that is beyond the tropics in both the hemispheres also
feel its impact but the impact is negligible now you should note that
India falls in this tropical band and it is also influenced by mjo now in the
tropics including India MgO in its active phase brings frequent cyclonic
activity and it can also initiate the onset of monsoon and it can also cause
one or two weeks of intense rainfall if the onset of monsoon and active phase of
mjo coincides in addition to this news
article also mentions that if there is a disruption in the phases of MgO then it
will have impact over the global climate including India so there was a research
paper which is cited in the Neuse article according to this research paper
the MgO clouds are spending only 15 days over the Indian Ocean normally they
spend 19 days but now they are spending only 15 days over the Indian Ocean but
if you see over the West Pacific this time period has increased by 5 days it
has increased from an average of 16 days to 23 days now it is this change in the
residence time of MgO clouds that has altered the weather patterns across the
globe including India so the changes in MgO behaviour has increased the rainfall
over northern Australia West Pacific amazon basin Southwest Africa and
Southeast Asia including Indonesia Philippines and Papua New Guinea now at
the same time these changes have brought a decline in rainfall over Central
Pacific along the western east coast of USA for example in California then also
it has brought a decline in rainfall in North India East Africa and the Yangtze
Basin China in addition to this the frequent
California fires then draughts in Africa and the floods and East Asian countries
and the Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal may be linked to this changes in global
data so that is all about this mad and Julian oscillation and its impact over
the global climate with this we have come to the end of this news article
there is great practice question will be discussed in the last session moving on
to the next discussion which is based on 15th finance Commission the syllabus
that can be linked to this discussion is given here for your reference
the news article states that the Union Cabinet has approved the extension of
the term of 15 Finance Commission it has been extended till the financial year
2025 to 2026 earlier the 15th Finance Commission was supposed to give
recommendations for 2020 to 2025 period but now the 15 Finance Commission will
give recommendation that will be applicable for six years as the term has
been extended for one more year so in this context let us first discuss
in detail about the Finance Commission first remember that Finance Commission
is a constitutional body it is constituted according to article 280 of
the Constitution and it provides for a Finance Commission as a quasi-judicial
body it is constituted by the President of India every fifth year or even it is
constituted at an earlier time before the 50th if the president considers it
necessary so now let us say the composition of Finance Commission the
Finance Commission consists of her chairman and four other members and they
are appointed by the president they all hold office for such a period as
specified by the president in his order and they are also eligible for
reappointment C the Constitution authorizes the Parliament to determine
the qualification of members of the Commission and also the manner in which
they should be selected so accordingly the Parliament has specified the
qualifications of the Chairman and members of the Commission through an act
the actus Finance Commission miscellaneous provisions Act of 1951
under this act the Chairman should be a person who is having an experience in
public affairs and the four other members should be selected from the
following such as a member could be a judge of High Court or a member should
be selected from the persons who is qualified to be appointed as a judge of
High Court and also the member should be selected from amongst the persons who
has specialized knowledge of Finance and accounts of the government and also a
person who has wide experience in financial matters and experience in
administration can be selected as a member and even a person who has special
knowledge of economics can be selected as a member of Finance Commission so
what are the functions of Finance Commission if you see article 280 class
3 Finance Commission is required to make
recommendations to the President of India on certain matters such as the
Finance Commission can recommend the distribution of net proceeds of taxes
that is to be shared between the centre and these states and it can recommend
the allocation of respective share so for such proceeds between these states
and it also gives recommendations on the principles that should govern the grants
in aid to the states by the center which are provided out of the consolidated
front of India and the Finance Commission also gives recommendations on
the measures that are needed to augment the consolidated from the first date
this is to supplement the resources of the panchayats and the municipalities in
this state then the Finance Commission can also provide recommendations on any
other matter that is referred to the Commission by the president in the
interest of sound finance then the commission also submits a report to the
president this report is laid before the houses of parliament by the President
and it is presented before the houses of parliament along with an explanatory
memorandum on the action taken on the recommendations of the finance
commission but one important point that you should note here is that the
recommendations that are made by the finance Commission are only of advisory
nature and they are not binding on the government so it is up to the Union
government to implement its recommendations on granting money to the
States so now let us discuss about this 15 finance Commission it was constituted
in 2017 and it was supposed to give recommendations for devolution of taxes
and other fiscal matters for five fiscal year which will start from 1st April
2020 but as we have discussed earlier the chairman and members hold office for
such period as specified by the president in his order and today’s
article is based on this aspect only the news article has mentioned that the 15
finance Commission will submit an interim report for the 2022 21 financial
year and also it will submit a full report for the financial years from 2021
to 2026 if you see the news article it mentions
that in the view of reforms and new realities the present move will
the Finance Commission more time to make effective recommendations for the period
2022 2026 what are these new reforms and realities see after the introduction of
GST it has significantly changed the financial relation between the center
and the states in terms of revenue collection and even revenue sharing and
along with this recently we had the reorganization of the state of Jammu and
Kashmir into two union territories so this amounts to a new dynamic and also
the term of 15 Finance Commission has been extended because recently in many
states elections were held so there were restrictions which were imposed based on
the model code of conduct and Finance Commission could not complete its visits
previously and now only it has completed then another reason is that the terms of
reference of 15 Finance Commission has been recently changed so all these
changes takes additional time for the Finance Commission to alter its
calculations and also you should note that this is not the first time the
recommendation period is extended beyond the conventional five years even during
the period of ninth finance commission the recommendation period was extended
to six years the recommendation period was from 1989 to 95 so that is all you
should know about Finance Commission and the recent changes to the 15 finance
Commission with this we come to the end of this news article discussion the
displayed practice question will be discussed in the last session moving on
to the next discussion which is based on SPG Amendment Bill of 2019 the syllabus
that can be linked to this discussion is given here for your reference recently
we have been seeing a lot about SPG that is a special protection group we have
also covered about this group in a detailed manner on number ninth the link
is provided in the description box and comment section so you can have a look
at it now today’s news is with respect to the special protection group
Amendment Bill of 2019 this bill amends the SPG Act of 1988 it particularly
amends section 4 of the Act which deals with the constitution of this special
protection group this section talks about the protectees to whom this SPG
protection will be provided the Act as a whole has been amended from time to time
if you see initial the special protection group act of 1988
was enacted to provide for the Constitution and regulation of special
protection group as an armed force of the Union which is for providing
proximate security to the prime minister and his or her immediate family members
but the act was amended in 1991 then in 1994 then in 1999 and then finally in
2003 to extend the SPG cover the former Prime Minister’s and their immediate
family members also and the protection was just offered to the former Prime
Minister and their immediate family members was for different periods
depending on the amendment so in 2003 the 1988 Act was last amended to extend
SPG cover to former Prime Minister’s and their immediate family members and the
time period of production was fixed it to be for one year from the date the
former Prime Minister cease to hold the office of Prime Minister
but this period can be extended more than one year based on the level of
threat which is periodically assessed by the central government but if you see in
the act based on a 2003 amendment there is no cutoff period or maximum
period for providing the SPG protection to former Prime Minister’s or even
providing protection to the members of their family so based on this the
government is saying that the number of individuals who have to be provided SPG
cover can potentially become quite large so it can lead to severe constraint on
the resources training and related infrastructure of SPG so this can also
have impact on the effectiveness of SPG in providing adequate cover to the
principal protecting who is the incumbent Prime Minister so based on
these reasons government is stating that there is a need to have more focus on
the core mandate of the Act that is the security of the Prime Minister and this
should be of paramount importance for government governance and national
security to attain this purpose only the bill has been introduced and the news
article mentions that it has been passed by the Lok Sabha now based on the
amendment to section 4 of the Act the protection is given to the Prime
Minister and members office immediate family who are residing with him at his
official residence then protection for former prime ministers
and their immediate family is also present but the amendment has included
the time period of the protection now the former Prime Minister’s and the
members office or her immediate family who are residing with him or her at the
residence will be protected for a period of five years from the date he or she
ceases to hold the office of Prime Minister so we can say that now the
former Prime Minister’s and their immediate family members will be
provided protection to a maximum period of five years only by this special
protection group based on this amendment bill so that is all about this SPD
amendment bill of 2019 moving on to the last news article discussion this news
article is about the return of three culturally significant artifacts from
Australia to India the article states that both India and Australia are party
to a 1970 convention this convention is called as the convention on the means of
prohibiting and preventing the illicit import export and transport of ownership
of cultural property so from problems point of view this convention is
important then other important things we have to take from this news article is
the meaning of terms such as do R palla and Nagaraja which are the artifacts to
be returned from Australia to India the syllabus that is relevant for this news
article analysis is given here for your reference to culturally significant
artifacts which are dated to 15 century and an important cultural artifact from
Rajasthan or Madhya Pradesh were smuggled from India or taken from India
through illegal route the artifacts from Tamil Nadu are called as vara Pallas
dois Rapala means door guardians in Telugu that is this artifact represents
a guardian who stands by the door to be vigilant and to give protection the
artifact whose origin is not yet ascertained between Rajasthan and the
Madeira dish the presence Nagaraja meaning serpent king this artifact is
said to be dated to sixth to eighth century these three artifacts were
smuggled from India and they have reached somehow to the National Gallery
of Australia the National Gallery of Australia has purchased these artifacts
in good faith thinking these are not stolen from some
now the news is that based on certain investigations it has been concluded
that the three artifacts in the National Gallery of Australia belongs to India
and its culture after the findings now the Australian Government has promised
to return the artifacts to India by January 2020 so in this context the
Australian Prime Minister has even commented that the return of artifacts
underscores the world’s debt to India’s magnificent culture history and legacy
these cultural artifacts are important for a country’s cultural heritage if you
see Indian Constitution Article 51 a states that it shall be the duty of
every citizen of India to value and preserve the rich heritage of our
composite culture so loss of such artifacts means impoverishment of
cultural heritage of that country which is the origin of such cultural property
or artifacts this point has been acknowledged in article 2 of the
Convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit import export
and transfer of ownership of cultural property of 1970 in this context let us
discuss the 1970 convention that is mentioned in the newest article this
convention was adopted in Paris in their 1970 it came into force on 24th April
1972 India is a state party to this convention and India has also ratified
this convention in January 1977 and from this noose article you can easily say
that Australia is also a state party to this convention Australia joined in 1989
but it has not ratified this convention yet ratification is important to make
the provisions of a convention binding on a state party so in this context
Australia has accepted this convention but there are some books which are also
saying that Australia has also ratified this convention but know that countries
can voluntarily show their commitments but ratification ensures the binding
commitment till the time a state is a party to that convention now in this
context you can also remember about one another convention which is a UNESCO
convention called as Convention on the protection of the underwater cultural
heritage actually India has not yet ratified this convention
and in fact India is not a signatory or a state party to this 2001 convention
now with the reference to such convention we request you to give
priority to the status of India like whether India is a signatory or not or
whether India has ratified the convention or not
now in terms of our today’s news article article 7 of the convention that is the
1970 convention is important this is because it deals with return of
artifacts belonging to other countries so article 7 of this convention states
that the state parties to this convention undertake to take necessary
measures to prevent museums and similar institutions within their territories
from acquiring cultural property originating in another state party
so under this article the state parties to the convention undertake to prohibit
the import of cultural property stolen from a museum or a religious institution
or a property stolen from secular public monument or even a similar institution
of another state party to this convention now the most important
provision of this article 7 is that it mentions that at the request of state
party of origin the requested party has to take appropriate steps to recover and
return any such cultural property imported after the entry into force of
this convention so this means that the requests for recovery and return shall
be made through diplomatic offices of this state parties in this context the
diplomatic offices refers to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs but know
that they will be requesting Authority in terms of facilitation under the
convention the real groundwork would have been done by the law enforcement
agencies of the country of origin the requesting party should provide the
documentation and other evidence that is necessary to establish its claims for
recovery and return of that artifact what property so in the present case
India’s the requesting party and Australia is the requested party when
such property is returned under this article there shall be no imposition of
custom duties and all expenses for the return and delivery of the cultural
property shall be borne by the requesting party itself that is in our
context it will be borne by India so that is all about this news
with this we have come to the end of news article discussion session the
displayed practice question will be discussed in the last session now moving
on to our final session for the day that is the practice questions the discussion
session this first question is based on fall army bomb
the first statement States it is an insect native to the tropical and
subtropical regions of India now many states in India are affected by this
fall or may bomb infestation such as the state of Tamil Nadu in state of
Karnataka then states like Dillon are under Pradesh and even the northeastern
state of Missouri is also affected by this fall army worm infestation but this
insect is not native to India this insect is native to the tropical and
subtropical regions of America so this means this statement is incorrect
now the second statement states it is a poly faggus that affects maize crops
only now if you know the meaning of poly foggers you can easily say this
statement is wrong because poly faggus means it feeds on many different species
of plants and it can reproduce on many different species of plants and we know
that the word poly itself means many so from this you
can easily say it does not affect only one crop even though maize is the crop
which is majorly affected by this infestation
it also affects other crops such as rice sorghum millet sugarcane vegetable crops
and cotton so this means this statement is also wrong now here the question asks
for the correct statements here both the statements are incorrect statements so
the correct answer to this question is neither one nor two now this next
question is based on Finance Commission first statement States it is a
constitutional body yes this statement is correct because Finance Commission is
established based on the article 280 of Indian Constitution which provides for
Finance Commission as a quasi-judicial body and it is constituted by the
President of India every fifth year or even before the 50th if the president
considers it necessary so this statement is correct if you see the options the
question asks for the not correct statement but your statement one is the
correct statement so you can eliminate option a and
see now from the remaining options you can easily say statement 2 is an
incorrect statement now we have to only see whether statement 3 years correct or
incorrect it states the member of the Finance Commission are appointed by a
committee headed by the Prime Minister know this statement is wrong because the
members and also the chairman of this Finance Commission is appointed by the
president not the prime minister or the committee headed by the Prime Minister
now the second statement is incorrect because the recommendations of Finance
Commission are not binding on the central government so the correct answer
to this question is option D 2 & 3 because 2 & 3 statements are not correct
now this question is with reference to the Convention on means of prohibiting
and preventing the illicit import-export and transport of ownership of cultural
property now this is a UNESCO convention the first statement States according to
the convention all expenses incident to the return and delivery of the cultural
property shall be equally shared by both the requesting party and they requested
party now this statement is wrong because all the expenses are borne by
the requesting party only and not by the requested party the second statement
states India as a state party to this convention now this statement is correct
because India is a state party and India has also ratified this convention in the
year 1977 but there is one another UNESCO Convention which is not yet
signed by India it is the Convention on the protection of underwater cultural
heritage of 2001 so don’t confuse here the question asks for the correct
statement so the correct answer to this question is option B to only now let us
see one mains question based on Jas paper 3 stubble burning forces us one of
the biggest threats among others to the air quality in Delhi suggests some
measures to tackle stubble burning from the states of Punjab and Haryana now for
answering this question you can start by mentioning that stubble burning of paddy
crop residues in punjab and haryana acts as a biggest threat threat to the air
pollution in Delhi and this happens particularly in October to November
every year and as a fact we can mention that even economic survey
of 2017 to 18 states that the crop residue and biomass
burning in late October in Punjab Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh
contributes to around 26 percentage – 29 percentage – the worsening of air
quality in Delhi in winter I mean the statement if you see yes double burning
is mentioned as one of the biggest threats so you can also mention other
threats such as vehicular pollution particularly the SUV vehicles in NCR
region and then the use of coal fired ovens then the burning of biomass then
also the pollution caused by the coal based industries and the coal based
power plants all these leads to add pollution in Delhi now the actual
question here is suggest some measures to tackle double burning from the states
of Punjab and Haryana so your focus should be more on suggesting the
measures as a first measure you can say that states should enable the provision
of subsidised happy cedar machines so that farmers need not go for stubble
burning then you can also say certain amendments to the laws pertaining to
groundwater table to allow farmers to cultivate paddy or transplant paddy
before prescribed note fed date can be made because due to this law farmers
cultivate the paddy crops in the months of October and November and then they
burn the crop residue which adds to the air pollution in Delhi so if the
cultivation period can be changed by the amendment then that burning will not
contribute to air pollution in Delhi during winter then government can also
change the policy which is required with respect to the power subsidy and
production of rice from these two mentioned states because if there is
less paddy production then there will be lesser contribution to pollution then
government can also insist the farmers to move towards more environmentally
friendly crops such as maize cotton and basmati rice and if there are some
losses incurred by the farmers due to this diversification then government can
provide compensation also then one another important measure is educating
the farmers about the consequences of their actions like such as what is the
consequence of growing paddy then how it is linked to
reduction of water table then what are the ill effects of stubble burning then
how oil nutrients are lost because of it like that
all these things can be taught to the farmers and this could lead to behavior
modification among the farmers and they will easily adapt to more diversified
crops now finally you can suggest for having a mechanism of penalizing the
farmers who are adopting this double burning but this has to be carried out
only after educating the farmers so like this you can also add your own
viewpoints for answering this question now let us see one mains question based
on G s paper one what do you understand by maddened Julian oscillation discuss
the lifecycle of MgO and its impact on the global climate including India now
for the first part of this question you have to just simply define Matt and
Julian oscillation which we have clearly discussed during the analysis then for
defining the life cycle of MgO you can even use the pictorial representation
which we used for today’s discussion based on that you can mention stage 1
stage 2 what happens in the last stage also then for impacts on global climate
including India you can say that MgO in its active phase brings frequent
cyclonic activity and it can also initiate the onset of monsoon in India
then you can say that due to the changes in mjo behavior that is increased
rainfall over the northern Australia West Pacific and Southeast Asia etc then
at the same time it has also led to decline in rainfall in many regions such
as Central Pacific North India East Africa then also in some regions of
China then you can also say the frequent California fires drought in Africa then
floods in East Asian countries then cyclones in bay of bengal is also linked
to this MJ cope with this we have come to the end of todays hindi news analysis
if you like the video don’t forget to like comment and share and do subscribe
to shankar is Academy YouTube channel for more updates related to civil
service examinations preparation

About the author


  1. Handwritten Notes in PDF Format:

    Handwritten Notes convenient for printing:

    i) Single side per page –

    ii) Double side per page –

    Time Stamping of news articles:

    1. 1.2 lakh hectares of farmland protected from Fall Armyworm –

    2. SPG Bill passed amid Opposition walkout – 00:27

    3. India a major gold smuggling hub: report – 12:03

    4. Australia to return 3 idols to India in January – 21:29

    5. Stubble burning is not the only culprit (Editorial) – 28:45

    6. Govt. extends 15th finance panel term – 34:47

    7. Global warming alters rainfall pattern – 38:22

    8. Practice cum Revision – MCQs – 44:36

    Important topics such as #MaddenJulianOscillation #StubbleBurningExpertOpinion #FallArmyworm #GlobalWarmingAndRainfallPatterns #Article280 #FinanceCommission #SPGBill #1970UnescoConvention #ConventionOntheMeansofProhibitingandPreventingtheIllicitImportExportandTransportofOwnershipofCulturalProperty #Dwarapala are vividly discussed in UPSC Civil Services Exam Perspective in this video, with a special Practice cum Revision session in the end.

    Link for 27th November Hindu News Analysis (Global warming, Climate change) –

    Link for 9th November Hindu News Analysis (Special Protection Group) –

    Link for daily ‘The Hindu’ news analysis –

  2. How do you manage such a program?. There's no advt and sponsoring on your channel while others have it.
    Just asking out of curiosity. 😅

  3. Thanks shankar ias team, you are working much hard for us, and we are also working very hard for our self. now time is 2.16 its show that UPSC aspiration not thinks about time. it thinks about quality knowledge. and dreams of IAS.

  4. Mam I m sort of words to praise u ☺️ madden Julian explanation was awesome …I had bit confusion abt MJO but now its cake walk for me only cz of u…thnks a ton mam

  5. One request Mam / Sir… Pls clarify why our Nifti and sensex touch great heights when our Indian economy performing at its lowest potential… This topic has been ignored pls Team spread light on this… Thank you in advance… 🙏🙏

  6. A huge thanks and an even bigger applause for you mam. No words can explain how amazing a teacher you are. For that matters all the hardworking educators of shankar ias academy. Kudos and request you all to kindly keep up the quality of discussion

  7. Supreme Court strikes down amended Finance Act rules for tribunals please make a detailed analysis of this since it was put in finance act bill 2017 kindly clarify in your next upcoming videos?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *